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Gm Food Research Paper

Genetically modified food - Wikipedia
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

Gm Food Research Paper

This is evident not only in the experiments involving nk 603, independently of the treatment at week 14, but also at week 5 (data not shown), but similarly observed in the mon 810 and mon 863 feeding tests (annex fig. This not only introduced unnecessary sources of variability but also increased considerably the number of rats fed a normal non-gm diet (320) compared to the gm-fed groups (80) per transformation event, which considerably unbalances the experimental design. The statistical differences between reference and control groups were calculated in order to study the effects of the different normal diets (due to differences in salts, sugars, minerals, vitamins, pesticides, etc composition), and indicated by contrast to monsantos work (see legend table , we again studied first normality (shapiro test) and variance equality (f test).

Faowho codex guidelines exist for risk analysis of gm food. This is exemplified when monsanto performed one-way analysis of variance (anova) calculations at 5 with a sample size of 10 animals for 10 groups. Consequently, based on the clear inadequacy of the statistical power used to refute toxic effects (for instance the unquestionable large size effects in this study), knowing also that billions of people and animals can consume these products prior to the performance of appropriate safety evaluation, we applied an appropriate, experimentally validated statistical analytical methodology we first repeated the same statistical analysis as conducted by monsanto to verify descriptive statistics (sample size, means, and standard deviation) and anova per sex, per variable and for each of the three gmo.

Approximately 80 different biochemical and weight parameters, including crude and relative measures (table , annexes), were evaluated in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. We conclude that these data highlight signs of hepatorenal toxicity, possibly due to the new pesticides specific to each gm corn. Most existing genetically modified crops have been developed to improve yield, through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases or of increased tolerance of herbicides.

For all that, the normality of the residues was tested using the shapiro test and the homoscedasticity (homogeneity of the variances) using the bartlett test. The animals (400 per gmo 200 for each sex) were randomized for similar body weight distribution. Usa) for mon 863 (march 14, 2001) on behalf of monsanto.

One corn (nk 603) has been genetically engineered to tolerate the broad spectrum herbicide roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. Unfortunately, this has been a challenge since usually these are regulatory tests performed confidentially by industry prior to commercialization of their gm crops, pesticides, drugs or chemicals. In addition, important sex difference markers were also ignored such as blood sex or pituitary hormone levels.

Indeed, this is true overall with the amplitude of the effects that can usually be observed within three months, in the case of usual chronic toxicity appearing after one year of treatment. The disturbance of parameters at the beginning of a disease is generally less important than at its end or as time progresses. Moreover, most effects appear to be dose-dependent since 83 of male effects emerge only at the 33 feeding level (1518), the highest gm maize concentration in the diet (table urine phosphorus, for instance, is importantly disturbed in a dose-dependent manner and at both 5 and 14 week periods of feeding and hence reproducible over time. Any sign of toxicity should be taken into consideration to justify the prolongation of the experiment, or, if this is not possible, to reassess the statistical analysis, and to propose a scientifically valid physiological interpretation of any findings relating to disturbed functional parameters on a per organ basis. All this increases noticeably the risks of false negative results.


Genetically modified food controversies - Wikipedia


Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.

Gm Food Research Paper

RETRACTED: Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a ...
RETRACTED: Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize
Gm Food Research Paper For example, concerning the statistical power in a t test at 5, Moreover. Nk 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. In addition, unintended direct or indirect metabolic consequences of the genetic modification cannot be excluded. As a result, the potential effects on physiological parameters, due either to the recognized mutagenic effects of the gm transformation process or to the presence of the above mentioned novel pesticides within these plants can be evaluated in animal feeding studies, We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863). Furthermore, In order to scientifically address this issue, it is necessary to have access to toxicological tests, preferably on mammals. University of caen, institute of biology, risk pole cnrs, In addition. Sd for a t test for instance) is about 70 (power of the test 30). We applied nonparametric methods, including multiple pairwise comparisons with a false discovery rate approach. These organs weighed at the end of the experimental period, along with the whole body were adrenal glands, brain, gonads, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. This was the ultimate objective of this investigation.
  • WHO | Food, Genetically modified


    Thus, the assessment of statistical power is absolutely necessary to understand the undetectable size effect the statistical power depends on the sample and effect size, and the level of the test. Therefore, all these three gm maize contain novel pesticide residues that will be present in food and feed. In the case where the shapiro and bartlett tests were non significant (p 0. However, these signs of toxicity alone do not constitute proof of adverse health effects. Any sign of toxicity should be taken into consideration to justify the prolongation of the experiment, or, if this is not possible, to reassess the statistical analysis, and to propose a scientifically valid physiological interpretation of any findings relating to disturbed functional parameters on a per organ basis.

    As a result, it is more instructive to investigate the available data that allows comparisons of several gmos consumptions on health effects. Contrastingly and for reasons that are not stated, in all three studies for all three gmos, only 2 doses and periods of feeding were measured, which makes it difficult to evaluate dose and cumulative effects. All this increases noticeably the risks of false negative results. Males are clearly more sensitive than female animals to show physiological disturbances when fed nk 603. .

    Moreover, most effects appear to be dose-dependent since 83 of male effects emerge only at the 33 feeding level (1518), the highest gm maize concentration in the diet (table urine phosphorus, for instance, is importantly disturbed in a dose-dependent manner and at both 5 and 14 week periods of feeding and hence reproducible over time. Other effects were also noticed in the heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system. We note that these unrelated, different non-gm maize types were not shown to be substantially equivalent to the gmos. When we then initially compare all p-values in our calculations with those of monsanto (significant and non significant differences, annex table ), we obtain ratios of 432452 (nk 603), 435450 (mon 810) and 442470 (mon 863). By employing our statistical methods even if we reached a concordance with monsantos results (annex table ), the level of precision of the main effects and their interpretation are highly different. In this case to have a power of 80 would necessitate a sample size of 17 rats. Only parametric tests (one-way anova under homoscedasticity hypothesis and student t tests on contrasts) were employed. Indeed, this is true overall with the amplitude of the effects that can usually be observed within three months, in the case of usual chronic toxicity appearing after one year of treatment. In addition, some parameters measured were related to bone marrow (blood cells) and pancreas (glucose) function. We have in a first instance indicated lacking values for different parameters (annexes, tables the most fundamental point to bear in mind from the outset is that a sample size of 10 for biochemical parameters measured two times in 90 days is largely insufficient to ensure an acceptable degree of power to the statistical analysis performed and presented by monsanto.

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. Currently available GM foods stem mostly from plants, but in the future foods ...

    A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on ...

    Abstract. We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world.
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    However, these signs of toxicity alone do not constitute proof of adverse health effects. Moreover, most effects appear to be dose-dependent since 83 of male effects emerge only at the 33 feeding level (1518), the highest gm maize concentration in the diet (table urine phosphorus, for instance, is importantly disturbed in a dose-dependent manner and at both 5 and 14 week periods of feeding and hence reproducible over time. In fact, there were only two treated groups for each sex (20 animals each consuming specific gm maize feed). Therefore, the protocol has to be drastically improved at this level, and as a result we consider that based on the analysis as presented by monsanto that it fails to demonstrate that the consumption of these gm maize feeds was indeed safe as claimed Buy now Gm Food Research Paper

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    In this case the probability of not detecting a medium size effect (0. Indeed, this is true overall with the amplitude of the effects that can usually be observed within three months, in the case of usual chronic toxicity appearing after one year of treatment. The three animal feeding studies were conducted in two different laboratories and at two different dates at monsanto (missouri, usa) for nk 603 and mon 810 (june 7, 2000) and at covance laboratories inc. Therefore, the protocol has to be drastically improved at this level, and as a result we consider that based on the analysis as presented by monsanto that it fails to demonstrate that the consumption of these gm maize feeds was indeed safe as claimed Gm Food Research Paper Buy now

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    Contrastingly and for reasons that are not stated, in all three studies for all three gmos, only 2 doses and periods of feeding were measured, which makes it difficult to evaluate dose and cumulative effects. We note that these unrelated, different non-gm maize types were not shown to be substantially equivalent to the gmos. In fact, there were only two treated groups for each sex (20 animals each consuming specific gm maize feed). Genetically modified (gm) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (dna) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e. We preferred benjamini and yekutielis method as the parameters under investigation are not independent.

    This included gamma glutamyl transferase after 90 days feeding, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the nk 603 and mon 810 trials, and cytochrome p450 family members in all cases Buy Gm Food Research Paper at a discount

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    This is not observed for all three gm maize varieties. As a result, it is more instructive to investigate the available data that allows comparisons of several gmos consumptions on health effects. Therefore, we then progressed to consider only relative differences over 5 (tables we first evaluated the results for the nk 603 feeding trials. In this case the probability of not detecting a medium size effect (0. The raw biochemical data, necessary to allow a statistical re-evaluation, should be made publically available according to european union directive ce200118 but unfortunately this is not always the case in practice.

    These studies constitute a model to investigate possible subchronic toxicological effects of these gm cereals in mammals and humans Buy Online Gm Food Research Paper

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    The observations shown in table with relative differences versus controls reveal that of 23 significantly different effects that are supposed to be due to this gm maize, 18 are in males (raw means with sem annex table ). As a result, it is more instructive to investigate the available data that allows comparisons of several gmos consumptions on health effects. The significant effect at this level does not appear to be a false positive result (week 5, 33, adjusted p). One corn (nk 603) has been genetically engineered to tolerate the broad spectrum herbicide roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. In this case to have a power of 80 would necessitate a sample size of 17 rats.

    On this occasion, the data we required for this analysis were obtained either through court actions (lost by monsanto) to obtain the mon 863 feeding study material (june 2005), or by courtesy of governments or greenpeace lawyers Buy Gm Food Research Paper Online at a discount

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    The quantity of some sugars, ions, salts, and pesticide residues, do in fact differ from line to line, for example in the non-gm reference groups. For all that, the normality of the residues was tested using the shapiro test and the homoscedasticity (homogeneity of the variances) using the bartlett test. Approximately 60 different biochemical parameters were classified per organ and measured in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. Males are clearly more sensitive than female animals to show physiological disturbances when fed nk 603. Here we discuss sex-related, temporal, linear and non-linear dose effects which are often involved in the establishment of chronic and endocrine diseases Gm Food Research Paper For Sale

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    These studies constitute a model to investigate possible subchronic toxicological effects of these gm cereals in mammals and humans. Anova , and in the case of heteroscedasticity the approximate welch method was used. In this case the probability of not detecting a medium size effect (0. All gm foods should be assessed before being allowed on the market. Furthermore, these tests should, if possible, be in accordance with oecd guidelines.

    This was the ultimate objective of this investigation. In addition, the investigators claimed that oecd guidelines and standards were followed. The animals (400 per gmo 200 for each sex) were randomized for similar body weight distribution. In addition, after centering and scaling the data, principal components analysis (pca, ) was performed in order to study the scattering of the different factors (sex, period, diet, dose and group) For Sale Gm Food Research Paper

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    The physiological criteria used to either accept or reject any gm significant effect as relevant should be made clear. Genetically modified (gm) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (dna) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e. The raw biochemical data, necessary to allow a statistical re-evaluation, should be made publically available according to european union directive ce200118 but unfortunately this is not always the case in practice. According to the results, we performed the adapted test that is, an unpaired t test, a welch corrected t test or a mann-whitney test (which is generally more appropriate with a sample size of 10). Unfortunately, some important measurements serving as markers for liver function were not conducted for technical or unknown reasons Sale Gm Food Research Paper

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